Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason why women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren’t sure how much the influence of each factor ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور is.
We are aware that women live longer than males, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور regardless of weight. But this isn’t due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line – which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1
This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.
The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
First, there’s an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, there’s an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the last century.
It is possible to verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.