Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn’t sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don’t know exactly how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور not in the past, has to relate to the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal line of parity – this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.



The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes than it is today.

We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.