Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each one contributes.
Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men, but not previously, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور is to have to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.
The chart below shows that although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.
In countries with high incomes, the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the men and women’s life expectancies at the birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
There is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was very small however, it has grown significantly with time.
It is possible to verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.