Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables that all play a role in women’s longevity more than men, we don’t know how much each factor Avis-de.com/forum/profile.php?id=31133 contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.



In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller

Let’s now look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there’s an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there’s an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

When you click on the option “Change country’ on the chart, you can check that these two points are applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.

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